Behavioral Objectives and Formative Evaluation
Influences on this period:
This period was characterized by slow progress toward the
evolution of instructional development.
The 8 year study plan by Ralph
Tyler was a major milestone in specifying general objectives
for education, and behavioral objectives were being shaped. The
study was designed in response to postwar pressures to revise
the prevailing college prep high school curriculum in order to
meet the needs of increasing numbers of students. The study confirmed
that objectives could be clarified if written in terms of student
Formative evaluation was used for the first time during
Alan Turing's "On Computable Numbers" describes
a general purpose computer (1936).
H. G. Wells writes about accessing information in his
book, World Brain (1938):
A World Encyclopaedia no longer presents itself to a modern
imagination as a row of volumes printed and published once for
all, but as a sort of mental clearing house for the mind, a depot
where knowledge and ideas are received, sorted, summarized, digested,
clarified and compared. It would be in continual correspondence
with every university, every research institution, every competent
discussion, every survey, every statistical bureau in the world.
It would develop a directorate and a staff of men of its own
type, specialized editors and summarists. They would be very
important and distinguished men in the new world. This Encyclopaedic
organization need not be concentrated now in one place; it might
have the form of a network.