Influences on this period:
This period was distinguished by the articulation of components of instructional systems and the recognition of their system properties.
In 1962 Robert Glaser employed the term instructional system and named, elaborated, and diagramed its components.
In 1965, Robert Gagne published The Conditions of Learning, a milestone that elaborated the analysis of learning objectives and went on to relate different classes of learning objectives to appropriate instructional designs.
Gagne introduced the idea of task analysis to instructional design. Through task analysis, an instructional task could be broken down into sequential steps - hieracrchical relationship of tasks and subtasks. Gagne built on principles of the systems approach which Skinner explored in programmed instruction,.
The systems approach to designing instruction was introduced by James Finn.Seels (1989) states that Finn
James Finn also established a Commission on Definition and Terminology whose goal was to define the field and associated terminology.
The term "hypertext" was coined by Ted
Nelson, who defined it in his self-published Literary Machines
as "non-sequential writing" (1965).
Norman Crowder developed "intrinsic" programming. In this model, a learner's possible responses are multiple choice, and the program branches depending on the response chosen. Students could omit steps they already knew or return to study remedial material on information already presented.
Gordon Pask enlarged upon Crowder's ideas about non-linear sequencing.
A shift from norm-referenced testing to criterion-based
testing was noted.
The focus was on the development of instructional materials.
Computer Curriculum Corporation
Seels, B. (1989). The instructional design movement in educational technology. Educational Technology, May, 11-15.