Before 1920 
  The Future

The 1970's:
ID Models and Maturation

Influences on this period:

  • Cognitive approach was still dominant. The work of Ausubel, Bruner, Merrill, Gagne and others on instructional strategies dominated this decade.
    Cognitivism and Gagne's Model of Learning
  • The birth of AECT and the proliferation of models of instructional design was noted as well as the development of needs assessment procedures by Kauffman and others.
  • Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak design the Apple I Computer (1976) It was a kit computer - customers bought the parts and built their own case.

Kinzer, Sherwood, and Bransford (1986) noted that there were three significant developments in instructional applications of computers during the 1960s and 1970s. These were the development of the IBM 1500 computer and the PLATO and the TICCIT systems. Kinzer et al. stated that the IBM 1500 was "the only computer ever developed specifically for computer-assisted instruction, rather than as a general-purpose computer for widespread applications" (p. 25).

TICCIT (Time-Shared Interactive Computer Controlled Information Television)

The Xanadu Group is conceived by Ted Nelson.

More information:


Kinzer, C.K., Sherwood, R.D., and Bransford, J.D. (1986). Computer strategies for education. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Co.