Influences on this period:
Films and film making became important as the Visual Instruction Movement grows.
This period was dominated by a fundamental shift in thinking about education which was supported by the advent of scientific investigation into human and animal learning.
Up until this time, instruction had been dominated by the idea that the mind, like the body, could be developed with exercise ("mind as muscle"). It was thought that the study of certain disciplines would improve the mind just like calisthenics improves certain muscles.
One of the most influential contributors to this shift to an empirical knowledge base for education was E.L. Thorndike, a professor of educational psychology at Columbia University. Thorndike was also a strong advocate of educational measurement which was significant in establishing education as a science.
Thorndike, Edward L. (1910). The contribution of psychology
to education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1, 5-12.
Watson, John B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views
it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177.
Watson, John B. (1916). Behavior and the concept of mental
disease. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific
Methods, 13, 589-597.
Watson, John B. & Rayner, Rosalie. (1920). Conditioned
emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology,